The revelation that our commensal bacteria play important roles in health and disease has turned the microbiome into one of the most active frontiers of biomedicine. Yet our efforts to turn our “inner bugs” into drugs have long been limited to investigational fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) procedures, which are meant to resolve dysbioses, or harmful microbiome imbalances, by taking gut bacteria of various and sundry types from healthy donors and infusing them into ailing recipients.

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